Again, Woodmorappe badly misrepresents the facts. Thus it would seem that a large amount of Ar40 was present in the beginning. An n,p neutron in, proton out reaction produces the same change in the nucleus of an atom as e.
Initial 40Ar There is far too much Ar40 in the earth for more than a small fraction of it to have been formed by radioactive decay of K This conclusion was clearly stated by both Wasserburg and others and by Faure and Powell Because they have no charge and little or no mass, neutrinos do not interact much with matter — most pass unimpeded right through the Earth — and they can be detected experimentally only with great difficulty.
Rybka claims that experimental evidence suggests that decay rates have changed over time: Another type of decay for which small changes in rate have been observed is internal conversion IC. For example, Kirby and others 74 argue convincingly that the measurements of the half life of Ra reported from to Table 3 suffered from inadequate experimental methods and are not definitive.
Second, mixing is a mechanical process that is physically possible only in those rock systems where two or more components earth age radiometric dating logic methodology invalid parent daughter different chemical and isotopic compositions are available for mixing.
The xenoliths, which vary in composition and range in size from single mineral grains to rocks as big as basketballs, do, indeed, carry excess argon in large amounts.
Since geochronologists assume that errors due to presence of initial Ar40 are small, their results are highly questionable. Jueneman, however, does not propose that decay rates would be changed, nor does he state how the clocks would be reset; in addition, there is no evidence to support his speculation.
Because these types of radioactive decay occur spontaneously in the nucleus of an atom, the decay rates are essentially unaffected by physical or chemical conditions.
Two cases where it appears that the half life is increasing with time are as follows.
The data are straightforward albeit technically complex measurements that fall on a straight line, indicating that the meteorite has obeyed the closed-system requirement. Mineral composition and the sequence of mineral formation are governed by chemical laws and do not involve mixing.
The weighted mean of these two measurements is Turner, however, made no such comment about excess argon in lunar rocks, and there are no data in his report on which such a conclusion could be based.
For example, in the first edition of his monograph on radiometric dating, Slusher claims that the decay rate of 57Fe has been changed by as much as 3 percent by electric fields; however this is an IC decay, and 57Fe remains Fe. A great many experiments have been done in attempts to change radioactive decay rates, but these experiments have invariably failed to produce any significant changes.
Data from Allegre and others 3. If enough free neutrons did exist, they would produce other measurable nuclear transformations in common elements that would clearly indicate the occurrence of such a process. Two studies independently discovered that the glassy margins of submarine pillow basalts, so named because lava extruded under water forms globular shapes resembling pillows, trap 40Ar dissolved in the melt before it can escape 36 I should also mention that the two references cited by Rybka are textbooks, not the publications in which the original data were reported; the dates of publication of these texts, therefore, do not reflect the years in which the measurements were made or reported.
Quite simply, xenoliths are one of the types of rocks that cannot be dated by the K-Ar technique. There are no neutron reactions that produce the same result as either beta or alpha decay. It is clear that there is no increase in the values as a function of time.
Measurements of the Half-lives of Ra and Pa. Under certain environmental conditions, the decay characteristics of 14C, 60Co, and Ce, all of which decay by beta emission, do deviate slightly from the ideal random distribution predicted by current theory 56but changes in the decay constants have not been detected.
This type of decay is electron capture e. As discussed above, one feature of the Rb-Sr isochron diagram is that, to a great extent, it is self-diagnostic.
The age of 4. Woodmorappe does not mention that the experiments in this study were designed such that the anomalous results were evident, the cause of the anomalous results was discovered, and the crystallization ages of the Liberian dikes were unambiguously determined.
It commonly substitutes for calcium in calcium minerals, such as the plagioclase feldspars. The Liberian example Table 2 is from a report by Dalrymple and others Alpha decay occurs when an alpha particle a helium nucleusconsisting of two protons and two neutrons, is ejected from the nucleus of the parent isotope.
The Liberian study is, in fact, an excellent example of how geochronologists design experiments so that the results can be checked and verified. Fourth, if isochrons were the result of mixing, approximately half of them should have negative slopes.
We need not assume that the isotopes, assumed to be daughter isotopes, were in fact produced in the rock by radioactive decay. The flow is unusual because it carries very abundant inclusions of rocks foreign to the lava.
Even though the various minerals will incorporate different amounts of Sr as they cool and form, the Sr isotopic composition will be the same because natural processes do not significantly fractionate isotopes with so little mass difference as 87Sr and 86Sr.
This combination of the strength of nuclear binding and the insulation of the nucleus is the reason why scientists must use powerful accelerators or atomic reactors to penetrate and induce changes in the nuclei of atoms.Before you read/watch/listen to “If You Can Read This I Can Prove God Exists,” read THIS first.
( words – 2 minutes) – then come back and continue reading. RADIOMETRIC DATING. he question of the ages of the Earth and its rock formations and features has fascinated philosophers, theologians, and scientists for centuries, primarily because the answers put our lives in temporal perspective.Download